Burung Puyuh adalah sekumpulan burung yang bertubuh kecil dari famili Phasianidae atau Odontophoridae.
The true or Old World quail is a migratory bird that can be found in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. The American quail (sometimes called “patridge”) and is non-migratory.
In the Bible, (Exodus, Chapter XVI, verse 13), quail was served by the Lord to the fleeing Israelites. During the present critical period of population explosion, with rampant malnutrition and unrelenting price rises for both cereal and meat, the quail is an answer to the consumer’s need for cheap eggs and meat, just as it was during that critical Biblical time.
[AgriPinoy Special] FREE Poultry Magazine Subscription
Many people are unfamiliar with the breeds of quail being raised in the Philippines Today. Some are surprised to learn that there is a white quail.
All the popular breeds used for eggs and meat commercial production are sub-varieties of the Corturnix species, which is able to produce eggs throughout the year.
The different breeds found in the Philippines are:
1. Native – Found in the fields and forests; the common “pugo”. This quail is not suitable for commercial production.
2. Japanese Taiwan – Popularly known as “Chinese Quail”. It has dark brown feathers mixed with white and gray. The female has a gray underside flecked with darker feathers, while the male has many reddish feathers on the underside.
3. Japanese Seattle – This is as an American breed similar to the Japanese Taiwan; it has jersey (rust-maroon) feathers at the base of the heads.
4. Negro – Black or grayish black.
5. Tuxedo – Black with a white spot on the breast.
6. Silver – White with black eyes; from the Canaan Valley, Egypt.
7. Brown Cross No. 1
8. Brown Cross No. 2
The Japanese Taiwan breed is commonly raised in the Philippines. However, its eggs are small compared to those of improved breeds, and egg production is lower. It has also been found to be susceptible to respiratory diseases. The six other breeds listed are all good. They are heavy egg producers and are resistant to diseases.
For beginners, the Japanese Seattle is recommended as it is a heavy egg producer and the male can be easily recognized by the color of its feathers as early as 30 days of age. This means a saving on feeds, as the male can be culled and sold as broilers.
To insure success, select a good breed and buy stock from a reliable breeder. Good chicks will cost about P 8.50 day old. Some selected breeders may cost as much as P 35.00 each
Bobwhite Quail Colinus virginianus
The bobwhite quail is a short-tailed, chunky brown bird. Color is sexually dimorphic with males having a white throat and a white stripe above the eye, while females have a buff-colored throat and eye stripe.
Habitat and Biology
The best quail habitats are well-drained, providing sufficient moisture for forage plants. Coveys, which are tightly knit associations of quail, occur near clumps of taller vegetation and large thickets. Quail prefer habitats that provide food, concealment, and cover for escape from predators and harsh weather.
The bobwhite quail nests on the ground, in brushy fields and under fences or hedgerows, usually within a few yards of a road or other open ground. Quail are late nesters, with egg production generally completed from June to August. The entire nesting season can involve production of multiple broods, which may be an adaptation to the large number of predators and high natural mortality experienced by bobwhite. If nest failure occurs due to fire, unfavorable weather, predators, or other factors, the birds will renest until a successful hatch occurs. Nest failures spread out the hatch dates and reduce the likelihood of mass mortality of the young, but subsequent nesting attempts generally consist of fewer numbers of eggs laid. The increased survival of late hatched birds is generally associated with plentiful stock for fall hunting. Quail form coveys from fall through winter when food is most plentiful. Coveys tend to maintain allegiance to their group unless their numbers are reduced by over-hunting or high predation rates. By early spring, coveys disband as selection of nesting sites begins.
Food has been reported to be a limiting factor to the health of the population, largely due to the selectivity of quail and the availability of food types. Their diet consists mainly of seeds, small fruits, insects, and green forage. Young birds feed heavily on insects, and animal matter also makes up a high percentage of the adult diet in warmer months. Food supply is influenced by local distribution and abundance of food plants and their seeding or fruiting characteristics.
Bobwhite quail are a popular species sought by sport hunters in the ACE Basin. Quail populations have been reduced in some areas due to habitat destruction. Hunters, land managers, and wildlife management organizations are working to improve habitat conditions for quail. The quail's high reproductive rate, in combination with suitable habitat conditions, will ensure that populations can be restored.
Bull, J. L. and J. Farrand, Jr. 1995. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds. Eastern Region. The Audubon Society field guide series. Alfred A. Knopf Inc., New York, NY.
Landers, J.L. and B.S. Mueller. 1992. Bobwhite quail management: A habitat approach. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL and Quail Unlimited, Edgefield, SC.
Mahan, W.E. 1992. Bobwhite quail. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries Division, Columbia, SC.
Sprunt, A., Jr. and E. B. Chamberlain. 1970. South Carolina bird life. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC.